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Concrete is a man-made material resultant of hardening of concrete mixture which consists of binder, filler and mixing water in specified ratios. Id necessary it is possible to apply different chemical and mineral additives.
Concrete is classified by the following characteristics: primary function, average density, type of binder, type and fineness of fillers, consolidation conditions and structure.
Quality parameters are: quality classes of expansion and compression, frost resistance, water resistance and average density.
Varieties of concrete:
- construction and functional
By average density:
- very light (average density < 500 kg/m3);
- light (average density < 2000 kg/m3);
- heavy (average density up 2000 to 2600 kg/m3);
- extra heavy (average density > 2600 kg/m3).
By type of binder:
- special (sulfurous, phosphate, polymeric, magnesian, etc.).
By type of fillers:
- dense aggregates;
- extra dense aggregates;
- porous aggregates.
- compact structure;
- porous structure;
- cell structure;
- coarse-pored structure.
By hardening conditions:
- in natural conditions;
- at thermal and moisture treatment and dry warming;
- at autoclave treatment.
Classes and grades of concrete:
Grade – average value of strength; class – guaranteed strength.